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How many types of shallow foundations are exist? for which construction element they are used?

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Shallow foundation is popular for light structures, there are 4 types of foundation which considered as a shallow foundation as describing below:

  • Spread footing (Isolating footing).
  • Strip footing (Wall footing).
  • Mat foundation (Raft foundation).
  • Combine footing.
The most common types of shallow foundation is a spread footing, because it can be constructed easily, and it's also considered as a cost effective footing. usually spread footing only support one column.
Strip footing is also known as a wall footing considered as a types of shallow foundation, the strip footing constructed continuously under the building loads, the footing consist of the long concrete beam with enlarged concrete base.
Mat foundation is a type of shallow foundation, widely used for light multistory buildings, mat foundation consist of the concrete slab supported the whole building.
Combine footing is another types of shallow foundation, usually support two column, when two spread footing are really close to each other the best options is to merge both of them, and the merged footing called combine footing.
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Actually, there's one more, Strap or cantilever footing
The strap (or cantilever) footing comprises of two isolated/individual footing connected with a structural strap or a lever. The strap is featured to connect the two footing in order that they works and becomes like a single unit. However, the strap simply works as a connection beam and does not resist any soil reaction. Thus, the strap is designed as a rigid beam.